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泛读3--Handout of Unit Two: English Reserve and Politeness

2006/09/12 分类:资源分享

Handout of Unit Two: English Reserve and Politeness

Part One: Figures mentioned in the Text II:

1. Andrew Carnegie, Industrialist / Philanthropist

Born: 25 November 1835
Birthplace: Dunfermline, Scotland
Died: 11 August 1919
Best Known As: Steel tycoon who started over 2,800 libraries

Andrew Carnegie was a 19th century steel tycoon who became one of the 20th century's most famous philanthropists. His life story is one of the most famous rags-to-riches accounts in United States history. Born in Scotland, Carnegie moved to Pennsylvania with his family in 1848 and began working in factories as a teenager. Hard work and a wise investment in a sleeping car company during the 1850s led to Carnegie's early success in the railroad business as well as the financial world. During the Civil War he invested in oil, worked in transportation for the U.S. War Department and became interested in the iron and steel business. After the war he concentrated on steel, and by 1888 he owned control of the Homestead Steel Works and other manufacturing plants, which he eventually consolidated as the Carnegie Steel Company. With his longtime partner, Henry Clay Frick, Carnegie competed fiercely in business and tried to quash organized labor, in spite of his belief that it was the duty of the wealthy to help society (a belief he outlined in an influential 1889 essay, "The Gospel of Wealth"). In 1901 Carnegie Steel merged with the U.S. Steel Corporation and Carnegie sold out to J.P. Morgan for $480 million, making Carnegie the richest man in the world. After his retirement he became a philanthropist and donated more than $350 million to further public education, build libraries and lobby for international peace. He also created the Carnegie Corporation of New York, endowing it with $125 million to support benefactions after his death. Although he spent much of his later life on his estate in Scotland, during World War I he returned to the U.S., where he died in 1919 at Shadowbrook, his estate in the Berkshire Hills of Massachusetts.

During the Civil War Carnegie avoided the battlefield by paying a replacement $850... Carnegie was a distant cousin to Dale Carnegie, whose 1937 bestseller, How to Win Friends and Influence People, made him a celebrity... Andrew Carnegie pronounced his last name "Kar-NAY-gee."

2. Conant, James B(ryant)
(born March 26, 1893, Dorchester, Mass., U.S.-died Feb. 11, 1978, Hanover, N.H.) U.S. educator and scientist, president of Harvard University (1933–53). Conant received a Ph.D. (1916) from Harvard and taught chemistry there until he was elected its president in 1933. He led the university to broaden the social and geographic makeup of its student body. During World War II he was a central figure in organizing American science, including the development of the atomic bomb. In 1953 he was appointed U.S. high commissioner for West Germany, and in 1955 he was appointed ambassador. His publications include chemistry textbooks, works on science for the lay reader, and books on educational policy.

3. Social anthropologist Geoffrey Gorer (1905–85) spent a decade studying tribal culture before turning his attention to the mores of the Americans, the Russians and, in particular, his fellow breed the English. His wide-ranging career also included a long association with his American peer Margaret Mead. The Archive of Gorer’s work represents every phase of his constantly evolving enthusiasms and includes much to complement the studies undertaken by Mass-Observation.

4. Harry S. Truman, U.S. President

Born: 8 May 1884
Birthplace: Lamar, Missouri
Died: 26 December 1972 (cardiovascular failure)
Best Known As: President of the United States, 1945-53

In the election of 1944 President Franklin Roosevelt chose Senator Harry S. Truman to be his vice presidential candidate. On April 12, 1945 Roosevelt died and Truman became the 33rd president. In 1945 he made the decision to drop two atomic bombs on Japan, finally ending the war. Truman steered the U.S. through the post-war period with colorful, no-nonsense harangues that have since grown legendary. He was re-elected in 1948 in a contest many expected him to lose to the Republican candidate, Thomas Dewey. (A famous photograph shows Truman holding up a premature edition of the Chicago Tribune with the headline "Dewey Defeats Truman.") Growing discontent with the U.S. involvement in Korea led Truman to give up politics at the end of his second term. He was succeeded as president by Dwight D. Eisenhower.

The S. doesn't stand for anything... Truman was the 33rd president.

5. John D. Rockefeller, Sr., Industrialist / Philanthropist

Born: 8 July 1839
Birthplace: Richford, New York
Died: 23 May 1937
Best Known As: Standard Oil tycoon and big-time philanthropist

One of the richest Americans in history, John D. Rockefeller was the founder of the Standard Oil Company and, later, a philanthropist whose wealth bankrolled the Rockefeller Foundation. Hard-working and meticulous, Rockefeller started out small and then made his fortune via hard-nosed and sometimes controversial business tactics, which have since made him an entrepreneurial hero to some, a greedy fiend in the eyes of others. He started in the oil business, and by the end of the century the Standard Oil Trust controlled so many other interests that it fell afoul of anti-trust laws. In 1911 the U.S. Supreme Court called Standard Oil a monopoly and forced the Trust to separate into competing companies. By that time Rockefeller himself was no longer involved in running the business, having devoted himself completely to philanthropy since 1896. He gave away millions to schools, health organizations and civic projects through the Rockefeller Foundation, which endures today.

John D. Rockefeller, Jr. was in the family business only briefly before devoting himself to philanthropy with the Rockefeller Foundation... the elder Rockefeller's grandson, Nelson Rockefeller, was a four-time governor of New York and vice president of the United States from 1974-77 under Gerald Ford.

6. Maurois, André, 1885–1967, French biographer, novelist, and essayist. His name was originally Émile Herzog. His first work, The Silence of Colonel Bramble (1918, tr. 1920), describing British military life, was highly successful. Ariel (1923, tr. 1924), a life of Shelley, was followed by lives of Byron, Disraeli, Chateaubriand, Washington, George Sand, Victor Hugo, and others. Other works include A History of England (1937, tr. rev. ed. 1958), Tragedy in France (1940, tr. 1940), From My Journal (1946, tr. 1948), and Proust (1949, tr. 1950). Maurois wrote discerningly on the art of biography as well as on writing and on living.

Part Two: Other Notes

1. who's who
The outstanding or best-known individuals of a group, as in Tonight's concert features a veritable who's who of musicians. This expression comes from the name of a famous reference work, Who's Who, first published in 1849, which contains biographical sketches of famous individuals and is regularly updated. Its name in turn was based on who is who, that is, the identity of each of a number of persons, a phrase dating from the late 1300s. [Early 1900s]

Who's Who (UK)
Who's Who (2005 Edition: ISBN 071367010X), is an annual British publication of very short biographies of about 30,000 notable Britons, published since 1849 by A & C Black. Originally, it provided lists of notable people, for example all MPs or all bishops. Starting with the 1897 edition, it listed people alphabetically.

A full online edition of the work was launched in 2005.

Subjects include peers, MPs, judges, very senior civil servants, and distinguished writers, actors, lawyers, scientists, researchers, and artists. Anyone holding a Professorial Chair at Oxford or Cambridge is eligible for admission to Who's Who.

Normally, once someone is included in Who's Who he or she remains in it for life, so for example MPs are not removed when they leave Parliament.

Who's Who has been criticised for being too old-fashioned. For example, all members of the English peerage, however minor, are included, but many more notable modern people, such as David Beckham, are not.

Several volumes of Who Was Who have been published, which give the entries of people who have died; they are usually as they appeared in the last Who's Who before their death, with the date of death appended. The first volume covered deaths in 1897-1915, but more recently they have appeared at ten-year intervals, and now every five years.

A fuller history of Who's Who was published to coincide with the 150th edition in 1998.

The name has been widely copied, and now there are many publications with "Who's Who" in the title, though they are not from the same publisher.

2. be meat and drink to somebody
British English
to be something that someone enjoys doing or finds very easy to do because they have done it many times before
e.g. The first five questions in the quiz were about football, which was meat and drink to Brian.

3. jack-of-all-trades noun. 万事通
[singular] someone who can do many different types of work, but who often is not very skilled at any of them

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