泛读3--Handout of Unit 4

2006/10/04 分类:资源分享

Handout of Unit Four: Seeking a Steady Arm to Lean onPart One: Appendix to Text I

1. Baby boom
A baby boom is any period of greatly increased birth rate within temporal and usually geographical bounds. Persons born during such a period are often called baby boomers. Many such instances have been recorded in human history and are often caused by uplifting factors such as good harvests, victories in sport or war, or just due to superstition. Some contest the general conventional wisdom that baby booms signify good times and periods of general economic growth and stability, but this is a controversial position that ignores much of the well-documented historical record from the 1500s to present.

2. American Hospital Association
Founded in 1898, the American Hospital Association (AHA), located in Chicago, Illinois, is the national organization that represents and serves all types of hospitals, health care networks, and their patients and communities. The AHA provides education for health care leaders and is a source of information on health care issues and trends. Close to 5,000 hospitals, health care systems, networks, other providers of care and 37,000 individual members form the AHA.

3. Parkinson's disease 帕金森症
A progressive nervous disease occuring most often after the age of 50, associated with the destruction of brain cells that produce dopamine and characterized by muscular tremor, slowing of movement, partial facial paralysis, peculiarity of gait and posture, and weakness. Also called paralysis agitans, shaking palsy.[After James Parkinson (1755¨C1824), British physician.]
4. CancerCare CancerCare is a nonprofit organization that provides services to people affected by cancer, including cancer patients, friends and family of people with cancer, and people who have lost friends and family to cancer. CancerCare's services include counseling (including web-based support groups), financial assistance, information about various types of cancer, treatments, and the challenges of coping with cancer or grief, and educational programs. www.cancercare.org

5. Central Park
An extensive recreational area of New York City extending north to south in central Manhattan. The land, acquired in 1856, was developed according to plans drawn up by the landscape architects Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux.

6. Thom Pain (based on nothing)
Thom Pain (based on nothing) is a solo play written by Will Eno. It is a monologue that is the ramblings of a man who has suffered a lot in his life telling the story of a bee sting, a boy with a dog that died, and his experience with a woman. It was performed at Edinburgh Festival where it received the First Fringe Award. It then opened off-broadway on February 1, 2005 to enthusiastic reveiews. The original production had James Urbaniak, who was nominated for the Drama Desk Award for Best Solo Performance for his portrayal of Thom Pain. The play was also a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize for Drama.

7. Tasmania
An island state of southeast Australia consisting of the island of Tasmania along with several smaller islands and separated from the mainland by Bass Strait. Abel Tasman explored the island in 1642, naming it Van Diemen's Land. It was renamed in his honor in 1853. Tasmania joined Australia in 1901.

8. Nuclear family 核心家庭
The term nuclear family was developed in the western world to distinguish the family group consisting of parents and their children, usually a father, mother, and children, from what is known as an extended family. According to Merriam-Webster the term dates back to 1947 and is therefore relatively new, although nuclear family structures themselves are not. Generally, the trend to shift from extended to nuclear family structures has been supported by increasing mobility and modernization.

Part Two: Language Notes of Text I

hypothetical adj.
based on a situation that is not real, but that might happen
hypothetical situation/example/question
e.g. Brennan brought up a hypothetical case to make his point.
The question is purely hypothetical
fix on somebody/something phrasal verb
to choose a suitable thing or person, especially after thinking about it carefully
e.g. We've finally fixed on a place to have the concert.

lighten the atmosphere/mood/conversation/moment
if you lighten something such as a mood or atmosphere, or if it lightens, it becomes less sad or serious
e.g. Nora didn't respond to my attempts to lighten the conversation.

1 n.[uncountable] British English [countable] American English
a small amount of damage to the brain that makes you lose consciousness or feel sick for a short time, usually caused by something hitting your head
with (a) concussion
e.g. He was rushed into hospital with concussion.I
had a concussion and a lot of scrapes and bruises.
2 [countable usually singular] a violent shaking movement, caused by the very loud sound of something such as an explosione.g. The ground shuddered and heaved with the concussion of the blast.

1 [countable] the cost of insurance, especially the amount that you pay each yearinsurance premiums
2 [countable] an additional amount of money, above a standard rate or amounte.g. Consumers are prepared to pay a premium for organically grown vegetables. Top quality cigars are being sold at a premium .
3 be at a premiumif something is at a premium, people need it or want it, but there is little of it available or it is difficult to get
e.g. During the Olympic Games, accommodation will be at a premium.
space/time is at a premium
Foldaway furniture is the answer where space is at a premium.
4 put/place a premium on something
to consider one quality or type of thing as being much more important than otherse.g. Modern economies place a premium on educated workers.

demography noun 人口统计学[uncountable]
the study of human populations and the ways in which they change, for example the study of how many births, marriages and deaths happen in a particular place at a particular timedemographer noun [countable]

quarterback noun[countable]
1. the player in American football who directs the team's attacking play and passes the ball to the other players at the start of each attack
2 [transitive] informal to organize or direct an activity, event etce.g. She quarterbacked the new sales campaign.

Monday morning quarterback放马后炮的人
American English informal someone who gives advice about something only after it has happened

ad hoc
formalFormed for or concerned with one specific purpose:专门的:为某一特定目的形成的或与某一特定目的有关的:an ad hoc compensation committee.专门的赔偿委员会Improvised and often impromptu:即兴的,即席的:即席的,通常未事先准备的:“On an ad hoc basis, Congress has . . . placed . . . ceilings on military aid to specific countries”(New York Times)“在事先未做准备的情况下,国会已…规定了…对特定国家军事援助的最高限额”(纽约时报)

peripheral adj.
1 formal not as important as other things or people in a particular activity, idea, or situationa diplomat who had a peripheral role in the negotiations Her involvement in the case was peripheral.
peripheral to
The romance is peripheral to the main plot of the movie.
2 formal in the outer area of something, or relating to this area the city's peripheral suburbs the peripheral nervous system3 peripheral visionyour ability to see things to the side of you when you look straight ahead

far-flung adjective
1 very distantfar-flung corners/places/regions etc expeditions to far-flung corners of the globe people flying to far-flung destinations
2 spread out over a very large areaEmail enables far-flung friends to keep in touch.

recurrence noun
formal an occasion when something that has happened before happens againrecurrence ofafter the recurrence of a back problem Measures must be taken to stop a recurrence of last night's violence.
The treatment of cancer using specific chemical agents or drugs that are selectively destructive to malignant cells and tissues. The treatment of disease using chemical agents or drugs that are selectively toxic to the causative agent of the disease, such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism
primal adjectiveformalprimal feelings or actions seem to belong to a part of people's character that is ancient and animal-like
lumpectomy noun 乳房肿瘤切除术an operation in which a tumour is removed from someone's body, especially from a woman's breast
emphysema noun 肺气肿[uncountable]medical a serious disease that affects the lungs, making it difficult to breathe

demeanour noun 行为,举止demeanor American English [singular, uncountable] formalthe way someone behaves, dresses, speaks etc that shows what their character is likehis quiet, reserved demeanour
Hogue Fume Blanc 好事来白福美白葡萄酒 干草,桃子及番石榴的香味.柑橘果的鲜味.最配海鲜类食物. 产地: 美国。
pulmonary adjective[only before noun] medicalrelating to the lungs, or having an effect on the lungs
nascent adjective[usually before noun] formalcoming into existence or starting to developthe country's nascent democracy their nascent manufacturing industries

mandala noun.Any of various ritualistic geometric designs symbolic of the universe, used in Hinduism and Buddhism as an aid to meditation. 曼荼罗:任一种印度教和佛教所用到的帮助禅定的象征宇宙的几何图形

prognosis noun. A prediction of the probable course and outcome of a disease. 预后:对疾病的发作及结果的预言The likelihood of recovery from a disease.预后:从病中痊愈的可能性A forecast or prediction:预兆:预告或预言:a gloomy prognosis for economic recovery.经济复苏的黯淡预兆

1 [intransitive and transitive] to speak unclearly without separating your words or sounds correctlyslur your words/speech She was slurring her words as if she was drunk.His voice sounded slurred.2 [transitive] to criticize someone or something unfairly3 [transitive] to play a group of musical notes smoothly together

respirator noun[countable]1 a piece of equipment that pumps air in and out of someone's lungs if they are too ill or weak to breathesynonym ventilatorThe baby was immediately put on a respirator.2 a piece of equipment that you wear over your nose and mouth to help you breathe in a place where there is harmful gas, smoke etcsee also gas mask

proxy noun
1 by proxyif you do something by proxy, you arrange for someone else to do it for youe.g. You can vote by proxy.
2 [uncountable and countable] someone who you choose to represent you, especially to vote for youproxy fora husband acting as proxy for his wife
scald verb[transitive] to burn your skin with hot liquid or steamDon't scald yourself with that kettle!
convulse verb
1 [intransitive] if your body or a part of it convulses, it moves violently and you are not able to control itHe sat down, his shoulders convulsing with sobs.
2 be convulsed with laughter/anger etcto be laughing so much or feel so angry that you shake and are not able to stop yourself

Scrabble noun 拼字游戏Scrabble [uncountable] trademarka game in which players try to make words from the separate letters they have
knowingly adverb
1 in a way that shows you know about something secret or embarrassingShe smiled knowingly at us.
2 deliberatelyHe would never knowingly upset people.
becoming tired or losing strengthflagging spirits/energy/morale By now the wine had lifted her flagging spirits.He presents himself as the man to revive the party's flagging fortunes .concern for the country's flagging economy

incur verb[transitive] formal: if you incur a cost, debt, or a fine, you have to pay money because of something you have done, or you do not make moneyincur expenses/costs/losses/debts etc e.g. If the council loses the appeal, it will incur all the legal costs. the heavy losses incurred by airlines since September 11th

Part Two: Notes of Fast Reading
Culture shock 文化震撼/冲击is a term used to describe the anxiety and feelings (of surprise, disorientation, confusion, etc.) felt when people have to operate within an entirely different cultural or social environment, such as a different country or a different state than where they live (e.g. urban southern California vs. rural North Carolina).The term was introduced for the first time in 1954 by Kalvero Oberg. Other researchers who have subsequently worked on culture shock include Michael Winkelman.Phases of Culture Shock: The Honeymoon Phase The "Everything is awful" phase The "Everything is OK" phase Reverse Culture Shock