2006/10/10 分类:资源分享

Handout of Unit Five: It’s tough at the Top

Part One: Background

1. Chomolungma or Qomolangma [("Mother of the Universe)]
Everest, Mount, peak, 29,035 ft (8,850 m) high, on the border of Tibet and Nepal, in the central Himalayas. It is the highest elevation in the world. Called Chomo-Lungma [Mother Goddess of the Land] by Tibetans, it is named in English for the surveyor Sir George Everest.It was first climbed on May 28, 1953, when Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay of Nepal reached the summit. The body of George H. L. Mallory, who died in an earlier/fisrt attempt (1924), was found on the mountain in 1999.

2. Ernest Shackleton, Explorer
Ernest Shackleton was a British explorer of the South Pole who is best remembered for leading his crew to safety after the failed expedition of the Endurance (1914-16). After Roald Amundsen reached the Pole in 1911, Shackleton and a crew of 28 men set out in his ship Endurance in 1914, in the hopes of being the first to cross the polar continent. The ship was frozen in ice, then crushed, and Shackleton and his men set out in lifeboats after nearly a year and a half on the ice. Shackleton, known as "The Boss," took five men and sailed 800 miles in an open boat from Elephant Island to the island of South Georgia, then went back and saved the rest of his crew, all of whom survived.

3. George Mallory,
Mountain Climber / Missing Person; Born: 1886; Birthplace: England
Best Known As: The guy who climbed Everest "because it is there." .
An expert mountaineer, Mallory led three British expeditions to Mount Everest in the 1920s. On the third, in 1924, Mallory and climbing partner Andrew Irvine made an attempt at the summit but disappeared in heavy weather, never to return. A 1999 expedition found Mallory's frozen body 27,000 feet up Everest's north face. The body was remarkably well preserved, but offered no evidence that Mallory had made it to the summit before his death. Mallory’s grandson, George Mallory II, reached the Everest summit in 1995.

4. Royal Geographical Society 英国皇家地理协会
The Royal Geographical Society is a learned society, founded in 1830 with the name Geographical Society of London for the advancement of geographical science, under the patronage of King William IV.

5. Alpine Club 高山俱乐部
A club of English gentlemen devoted to mountaineering, first of all in the Alps, members of which have successfully addressed themselves to attempts of the kind on loftier mountains. Today, Alpine clubs stage climbing competitions, operate Alpine huts and paths, and are active in protecting the Alpine environment.

6. Andrew Irvine
Andrew "Sandy" Irvine was one of the mountaineers (the other being George Mallory) who attempted to make a first ascent of Mount Everest in 1924. He was born in Birkenhead, England on 8 April 1902, to a family with strong Scottish and Welsh roots, and was educated at Birkenhead School, Shrewsbury School and Merton College, Oxford. He was a keen sportsman and excelled at rowing, and was a member of the crew which won the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race in 1923.

7. Franklin, Sir John 1786–1847.
British explorer who led a search for the Northwest Passage (1845–1847) on which he and his 129-man crew perished. A record of the expedition's discovery of the passage was found in 1857.

8. Corn Laws 谷物法案
Any of the regulations governing the import and export of grain (called corn by the English) in Britain. Records mention the imposition of Corn Laws as early as the 12th century. They became politically important in the late 18th and early 19th century, during the grain shortage caused by Britain's growing population, bad harvests, and the blockades imposed in the Napoleonic Wars. When Sir Robert Peel became prime minister the laws were finally repealed (1846).

Part Two: Language Notes
treacherous adjective
1 someone who is treacherous cannot be trusted because they are not loyal and secretly intend to harm you
e.g. a sly and treacherous woman
a treacherous plot to overthrow the leader
2 ground, roads, weather conditions etc that are treacherous are particularly dangerous because you cannot see the dangers very easily
e.g. treacherous mountain roads
Strong winds and loose rocks made climbing treacherous.

folly noun plural follies
1 [uncountable and countable] formal a very stupid thing to do, especially one that is likely to have serious results
e.g. Somerville bitterly regretted his folly at becoming involved.
It would be sheer folly to reduce spending on health education.
2 [countable] an unusual building that was built in the past as a decoration, not to be used or lived in

feat noun [countable]
something that is an impressive achievement, because it needs a lot of skill, strength etc to do
remarkable/considerable/incredible etc feat
e.g. They climbed the mountain in 28 days, a remarkable feat.
perform/accomplish/achieve a feat
e.g. the woman who performed the feat of sailing around the world alone
no mean feat (=something that is difficult to do)
e.g. It is no mean feat to perform such a difficult piece.

elevate [transitive]
1 formal to move someone or something to a more important level or rank, or make them better than before
e.g. Language has elevated humans above the other animals.
elevate somebody/something to something
e.g. Their purpose is to elevate AIDS to the top of government priorities.
2 technical to lift someone or something to a higher position
e.g. Gradually elevate the patient into an upright position.

incalculable adjective formal
too great to be calculated
e.g. Her contribution to our work is incalculable.
incalculable importance/value/worth etc
treasures of incalculable value

confer verb formal
1 [intransitive] to discuss something with other people, so that everyone can express their opinions and decide on something
confer with
e.g. Franklin leant over and conferred with his attorneys.
2 confer a title/degree/honour etc
to officially give someone a title etc, especially as a reward for something they have achieved

vintage adjective [only before noun]
1 vintage wine is good quality wine made in a particular year
2 old, but high quality
vintage cars

tattered adj.
clothes, books etc that are tattered are old and torn
e.g. He produced a tattered envelope from his pocket.

stitch verb
to sew two pieces of cloth together, or to sew a decoration onto a piece of cloth
e.g. Mary is stitching a bedspread.
stitch something onto/across something
e.g. The jersey has his name stitched across the back.

phenomenal adjective
very great or impressive
e.g. the phenomenal success of computer games in recent years
phenomenal growth/rise/increase
e.g. California had experienced a phenomenal growth in population.
He has learned a phenomenal amount in the last two years.

tenacious adjective
1 determined to do something and unwilling to stop trying even when the situation becomes difficult
e.g. a tenacious negotiator
2 tenacious beliefs, ideas etc continue to have a lot of influence for a long time
e.g. a tenacious religious tradition that is still practised in Shinto temples
tenaciously adverb
tenacity noun [uncountable]
“'Tis known by the name of perseverance in a good cause,—and of obstinacy in a bad one” (Laurence Sterne).
“大家都知道,毅力用于褒义而顽固用于贬义” (劳伦斯·斯顿)。

Tenacity and especially pertinacity suggest stubborn, often perverse persistence:
Tenacity 尤其是pertinacity 意指顽固, 常常指刚愎自用的顽固:
“The Scots fought with desperate tenacity” (John Morley).
“苏格兰人进行绝望的顽抗” (约韩·莫里)。

close-knit adj.
a close-knit group of people is one in which everyone knows each other well and gives each other support when they need it
a close-knit community

reconnaissance noun
the military activity of sending soldiers and aircraft to find out about the enemy's forces
e.g. reconnaissance aircraft
a reconnaissance mission
wartime roles such as observation and reconnaissance

buoy verb
also buoy up [transitive]
1 to make someone feel happier or more confident
e.g. The party is buoyed up by the latest opinion poll results.
2 to keep profits, prices etc at a high level
e.g. Increased demand for computers buoyed their profits.
3 to keep something floating

siege noun
1 a situation in which an army or the police surround a place and try to gain control of it or force someone to come out of it
e.g. The siege lasted almost four months.
a three-day police siege at a remote country cottage
2 lay siege to somebody/something
a) if the army or police lay siege to a place, they start a siege against it
e.g. In June 1176 King Richard laid siege to Limoges.
b) if you lay siege to someone, you do everything you can to try and get them to talk to you
e.g. Then he set to work laying siege to her with letters.

throw in/cast your lot with somebody/something 共担风险/命运
to join or support someone or something, and accept that what happens to them will affect what happens to you
e.g. In 1915 Italy threw in her lot with the allies.

macabre adjective
very strange and unpleasant and connected with death or with people being seriously hurt
e.g. a macabre tale a macabre sense of humor
源自 古法语 (Danse) Macabre [死亡的(舞蹈)]
Dance of Death also (danse macabre)
an imaginary dance which people are supposed to perform as they are being led to their death by a skeleton representing death. It was very common in pictures and drawings in the Middle Ages, but there are also descriptions of it in music and literature.

permafrost noun 永久性冻土带
a layer of soil that is always frozen in countries where it is very cold

enigma noun [countable]
someone or something that is strange and difficult to understand
synonym mystery
e.g. The neighbors regarded him as something of an enigma.

mesmerize verb
[transitive usually in passive]
if you are mesmerized by someone or something, you cannot stop watching them or listening to them because they are so attractive or have such a powerful effect
synonym captivate
e.g. The first time I saw Diana I was mesmerized by her beauty.

forensic adjective [only before noun] 法医/鉴定的
relating to the scientific methods used for finding out about a crime
forensic evidence/science/medicine etc
e.g. Forensic experts found traces of blood in the car.
autopsy plural autopsies[countable] especially American English
an examination of a dead body to discover the cause of death
British Equivalent: post mortem an autopsy report

exhume [transitive] 掘尸验证
formal to remove a dead body from the ground, especially in order to check the cause of death
synonym dig up
exhumation noun

pemmican noun 干肉饼,肉糜饼
dried meat, beaten into small pieces and pressed into flat round shapes

gruesome adjective
very unpleasant or shocking, and involving someone being killed or badly injured
e.g. Police described it as a particularly gruesome attack. Spare me the gruesome details.

goggles noun [plural]
a pair of glasses made of glass or plastic with a rubber or plastic edge that fit against your skin and protect your eyes

elusive adjective
1 an elusive person or animal is difficult to find or not often seen
e.g. She managed to get an interview with that elusive man.
2 an elusive result is difficult to achieve
e.g. She enjoys a firm reputation in this country but wider international success has been elusive.
3 an elusive idea or quality is difficult to describe or understand
e.g. For me, the poem has an elusive quality.

Fast Reading
Some Notes:
The European Space Agency (ESA), established in 1975, is an inter-governmental organization dedicated to the exploration of space, currently with 17 member states. Its headquarters are in Paris, France. ESA has a staff (excluding sub-contractors and national space agencies) of about 1,900 with an annual budget of about €3 billion in 2006.